The SoTL Advocate

Supporting efforts to make public the reflection and study of teaching and learning at Illinois State University and beyond…

Might the 4M Framework Support SoTL Advocacy?


Written by: Jennifer Friberg, Cross Endowed Chair in SoTL at Illinois State University

Within SoTL, there are as many similarities as differences. As SoTL scholars, we are alternately inter- and intra-disciplinary in our focus. We operate within different areas of our big tent. We disseminate our work locally, but often seek national and global audiences. SoTL is diverse and different and context-specific but also uniformly focused on improving teaching and learning.

This dynamic orientation for SoTL impacts how we share and advocate for SoTL. With the work I have been doing the last several years, I have found that I advocate differently for SoTL based on my immediate audience: individual researchers, students, department chairs, university administration, disciplinary leaders and organizations. This is likely true for many of us, as we seek support for the important work we do with SoTL. I have often wished for a more organized – or perhaps more efficient – way to conceptualize my SoTL advocacy strategy. In my readings today, I may have found one.

Wuetherick and Yu (2016) recently shared their study exploring the state of SoTL in Canada, reporting input on practices and trends from the perspective of 140 respondents, each SoTL scholars in Canada.  Input from these individuals (gathered via survey) was organized across a four-level framework, which I will term the 4Ms for efficiency: mega, macro, meso, and micro. Use of this 4M framework allowed interpretation of data important to understanding SoTL from a variety of viewpoints, representing individuals and groups. Each of these levels is defined below:


Data from the Wuetherick and Yu (2016) study provided focused perspectives on each of these levels of influence, alerting readers of interesting trends such as these:

  • While SoTL research influenced 99% of respondents to change the design and implementation of their course, only 52% worked in institutions where SoTL is encouraged via promotion and tenure policies.
  • Different academic/disciplinary departments/units valued SoTL inconsistently, with 50% of respondents indicating that their departmental culture encouraged participation in SoTL.
  • Two-thirds of respondents felt as though there have been increases in the quality and quantity of venues for sharing SoTL work, but only 35% reported adequate campus-level funding for SoTL work.

While these data (and the rest contained within the study) help to inform the state of SoTL in Canada, they also provide a very solid foundation for SoTL advocacy in that country. There is a clear starting point in terms of where attention could be drawn to benefit the micro level (increase funding for SoTL work), the meso level (encourage meaningful changes in departmental culture for greater support of SoTL), the macro level (adapt promotion and tenure policies to support the work of SoTL scholars), and the mega level (continue to increase the profile of dissemination outlets for SoTL work).

Others could use a similar model. Single institutions could survey faculty or others could band together in a more collaborative effort (as was seen in Canada) to outline regional or national priorities for advocacy based on available data. All in all, it would seem as though the 4M framework might give an important starting place for purposeful and strategic advocacy across shareholders to advance and grow SoTL.

Blog Reference:

Wuetherick, B. & Yu, S. (2016). The Canadian teaching commons: The scholarship of teaching and learning in Canadian higher education. New Directions in Teaching &


7 thoughts on “Might the 4M Framework Support SoTL Advocacy?

  1. Thank you for your thoughtful and encouraging commentary (to me, to my co-author, and to everyone advocating for SoTL moving forward across higher education in Canada and beyond). And best of luck as you continue the wonderful work of the Cross Endowed Chair in SoTL at ISU!

    Brad Wuetherick

    Executive Director, Learning and Teaching
    Office of the Provost and VP Academic, and
    Centre for Learning and Teaching
    Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada


    • Thanks so much, Brad. I enjoyed your article. Anything that makes me think about possibilities is always appreciated. As for the Cross Chair role, I’m thrilled to be here but recognize that I have huge shoes to fill! Thanks for your kind words.


      Liked by 1 person

  2. Thank you Jen for your blog! And yes, it was so great to have Brad and Stan’s chapter in the issue – a great baseline to our advocay work in Canada.

    If you’re interested in other writing using what you have so succinctly called the “4M” framework (love it!), have a look at some of these. We’ve been using it in parts of Canada for a while, including in some of the way you have mentioned (have a look at the culminating chapter in the special issue as well – listed below)

    Poole, G., & Simmons, N. (2013). The contributions of the scholarship of teaching and learning to quality enhancement in Canada. In G. Gordon, & R. Land (Eds.), Quality enhancement in higher education: International perspectives (pp. 118-128). London: Routledge.
    Roxå, T., & Mårtensson, K. (2012). How effects from teacher training of academic teachers propagate into the meso level and beyond. In E. Simon & G. Pleschova (Eds.), Teacher development in higher education: Existing programs, program impact, and future trends (pp. 213-233). London: Routledge.
    Simmons, N. (2009). Playing for SoTL impact: A personal reflection. The International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 3(2), 15.
    Simmons, N. (2011). From there to here and here to there: Is SoTL impact everywhere?” Presentation at the Annual Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education conference, Saskatoon, SK, June 15-18, 2011.
    Simmons, N. (2016). The scholarship of teaching and learning in Canada: Institutional impact. New Directions in Teaching and Learning, 146, 95-102.
    Williams, A., Verwoord, R., Beery, T., Dalton, H., McKinnon, J., Pace, J., Poole, G., & Strickland, K. (2013). The power of social networks: A model for weaving the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning into institutional culture. Teaching and Learning Inquiry, 1(2), 49-62.


    • Thanks for that great reference list, Nicola. Yes, I had read several of these before…but since the Wuetherick & Yu article was the one that sparked my thinking, I focused on those authors. Having this list is a great resource for me and for others!


  3. Pingback: Using the Micro-Meso-Macro-Mega (4M) framework for annual reporting and strategic planning | SOTL Canada

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